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There are various ways of setting out references / bibliographies for an assignment.
NOTE  This style is based on the AGPS 5th ed
Before you write your list of references/bibliography check with your lecturer/tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the Academic Department.
Some Departments prefer to use variations on the Harvard system, please check with your lecturer/tutor.
 


The following are examples of one style, Harvard (author-date system for books, articles and "non-books") based on AGPS Style Guide 5th ed.
Your bibliography should identify an item (e.g. book, journal article, cassette tape or film) in sufficient detail so that others may identify it and consult it.
Your bibliography should appear at the end of your essay/report with entries listed alphabetically.
Generally only the author's initials are used in the bibliography, however, given names may be used if they help the reader recognise the author more readily.
If you have used sources from the Internet, these should be listed in your bibliography.
 For a Book  For Internet and Other Electronic Sources
 For an Article  References in the Text of Your Essay
 For a Non-book (Multimedia Material)  Bibliography / List of References


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For a Book
The details required in order are:
name/s of author/s, editor/s, compiler/s (surname, and initials or given name), or the institution responsible
year of publication
title of publication and subtitle if any (all titles must be underlined or italicised)
series title and individual volume if any
edition, if other than first
publisher
place of publication
page number(s) if applicable
One author


Berkman, R. I. 1994, Find It Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on Any Subject,
HarperPerennial, New York.
Explanation of citation



 

Two or more authors

Moir, A. & Jessel, D. 1991, Brain Sex: The Real Difference Between Men and Women,
Mandarin, London.

Cheek, J., Doskatsch, I., Hill, P. & Walsh, L. 1995, Finding Out : Information Literacy For the 21st century,
MacMillan Education Australia, South Melbourne.
Editor(s)


Robinson, W. F. & Huxtable, C. R. R. (eds) 1988, Clinicopathologic Principles For Veterinary Medicine,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Sjostrand, S. (ed.) 1993, Institutional Change: Theory and Empirical Findings,
M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Sponsored by institution, corporation or other organisation


Australian Government Publishing Service 1994, Style Manual For Authors, Editors and Printers,
5th edn, AGPS, Canberra.


Queensland Tourist and Travel Corporation, Market Research Department 1991, An Examination of the Effect of the
Domestic Aviation Dispute on Queensland Tourism, Queensland Tourist and Travel Corporation, Brisbane.

Series


Simons, R. C. 1996, Boo!: Culture, Experience and the Startle Reflex, Series in Affective Science,
Oxford University Press, New York.

Edition


McTaggart, D., Findlay, C. & Parkin, M. 1995, Economics, 2nd edn,
Addison-Wesley, Sydney.

Chapter or part of a book to which a number of authors have contributed


Bernstein, D. 1995, 'Transportation planning' in The Civil Engineering Handbook, ed. W.F.Chen,
CRC Press, Boca Raton.
No author or editor

If no author is given, the title is used as the first element of a citation. Alphabetise the entry by the first main word of the title in the bibliography.


The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business 1993, CCH Australia, North Ryde, NSW.



For an Article
The details required, in order, are:

name/s of author/s of the article (surname, and initials or given name)
year of publication
title of article, in single quotation marks
title of periodical (underlined or italicised)
volume number
issue (or part) number
page number(s)
Journal article


Huffman, L. M. 1996, 'Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient', Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.
Explanation of citation



Conference paper


Bohrer, S., Zielke, T. & Freiburg, V. 1995, `Integrated obstacle detection framework for intelligent cruise control on motorways',
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Detroit, MI, Piscataway, pp. 276-281.
Newspaper article


Simpson, L. 1997, `Tasmania's railway goes private`, Australian Financial Review, 13 Oct., p. 10.



For Non-Book/Multimedia Material
The details required are the same as for a book, with the form of the item (eg videorecording, tape, computer file, etc.) indicated at the end of the entry.


Get the Facts (And Get Them Organised) (videorecording) 1990, Williamstown, Vic.,
Appleseed Productions.

CDATA 91 With Supermap: Data For Australia 1995, release 2.1 rev.,
Hawthorne East, Vic., Space-Time Research.



For Electronic Resources
This could include sources from full text compact disk products, electronic journals or other sources from the Internet.

The basic form of the citations follow the principles listed for print sources (see above)

name/s of author/s
date of publication
title of publication
publisher/organisation
edition, if other than first
type of medium
date item retrieved
name or site address on internet (if applicable)
Examples:


Weibel, S. 1995, `Metadata : the foundations of resource description', D-lib Magazine, [Online]
Available at: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/July95/07weibel.html

ASTEC 1994, The Networked Nation, Available at: http://astec.gov.au/astec/net_nation/contents.html
If no author is given, the title is used as the first element of a citation

Example:
Hacker Attack (videorecording) 1995, Sydney, NSW., SBS.




References in the Text of Your Essay
In the author-date (Harvard system), a textual citation generally requires only the name of the author(s) and the year of publication (and specific page(s) if necessary).

This may appear at the end of a sentence, before the full stop.

Alternatively, the author's surname may be integrated into the text, followed by the year of publication in parentheses.

The full reference must be listed at the end of your essay.

Examples

It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir & Jessel 1991).

It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir & Jessel 1991, p. 94).

Moir and Jessel (1991) have shown that it is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable.

Moir and Jessel (1991, pp. 93-4) have shown that it is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable.




Bibliography / List of References

NOTE  A list of references contains details only of those works cited in the text.
A bibliography includes sources not cited in the text but which are relevant to the subject.
 

The Following are Examples of Entries in a Bibliography or List of References


Australian Government Publishing Service 1994, Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers,
5th edn, AGPS, Canberra.

Bernstein, D. 1995, 'Transportation planning' in The Civil Engineering Handbook, ed. W. F. Chen,
CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Bohrer, S., Zielke, T. and Freiburg, V. 1995, `Integrated obstacle detection framework for intelligent cruise
control on motorways',IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Detroit, MI Piscataway, pp.276-281.

Hacker Attack.(videorecording) 1995, Sydney, NSW., SBS.

Huffman, L. M. 1996, `Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient',
Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.

McTaggart, D., Findlay, C. & Parkin, M. 1995, Economics, 2nd edn, Addison- Wesley, Sydney.

Moir, A. & Jessel, D. 1991, Brain Sex: The Real Difference Between Men and Women, ,
Mandarin, London.

Robinson, W. F. & Huxtable, C. R. R. (eds) 1988, Clinicopathologic Principles for Veterinary Medicine,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Simons, R. C. 1996, Boo!: Culture, Experience and the Startle Reflex, Series in Affective Science,
Oxford University Press, New York.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

If you require further information:

For print sources:


Australian Government Publishing Service 1994, Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers,
5th edn, AGPS, Canberra

For electronic sources:


Li, X & Crane, N. 1993, Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information,
Meckler, Westport.




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